Optimization and efficiency of Industrial R717 systems

Group 2: Optimization of Industrial R717 systems

In these three seminars we will go through correct / optimal design, construction, and assembly of industrial R717 refrigeration systems. How to make the systems so they will perform with optimum energy efficiency, low service cost and maximum refrigeration capacity. It will be emphasized how the system design is done best possible according to the customers’ needs and at the same time so energy saving as possible. It will be shown how to design so the very dangerous “liquid hammer” in pipes and valves in connection with hot gas defrost is avoided. “Liquid hammer” is the far most dangerous thing in industrial refrigeration systems and has been the “root course” of many of the worst and dangerous accidents with industrial R717 systems, where large amounts of ammonia was released, and people got severely hurt. There are no laws and / or regulations to prohibit design of refrigeration systems where “liquid hammer” can or will happen. It is completely up to the designers to ensure the systems are built in a safe way. Unfortunately, there are only very limited know how among refrigeration engineers in the area of what creates “liquid hammer” and how to avoid it from happening.

Evaporators, what are the correct circulation rates and why?
Suction lines, risers how do they work and why? 
DX systems? 
How do liquid separators work and what should be calculated /considered? 
How to protect refrigerant pumps? 
Dry suction lines, are they always dry?

In this seminar we are looking at the low-pressure side of the refrigeration system. How is an evaporator made correctly according to circulation rates and refrigeration capacity? What do we need to consider when dimensioning “wet” and “dry” suction lines and why? What are the consequences due to energy consumption and capacity on the system? What do you need to consider when liquid separators are dimensioned and why? How do a liquid separator work and what makes it work? Why do refrigerant pumps fail and how is it avoided? Real life “case stories” will show the importance in doing dimensioning and piping the right way.

Correct piping around the condensers.
HP float valve controlled systems and LP controlled systems, what’s the difference? 
How to save energy when doing efficient hot gas defrost instead of using energy? 
Liquid hammer, what is it and how to avoid it? 
How to build the system efficient in praxis? 
What should be considered and what must be secured? 

In this seminar we look at the systems high pressure side. What does it mean for the energy consumption that piping is made correctly around the condenser? How can you design the system so hot gas defrost becomes extremely efficient and save energy while defrosting, instead of using energy? How to design, construct and control the system so the very dangerous phenomenon “liquid hammer” is avoided when initiating hot gas defrost? “Liquid hammer is the most dangerous thing we know in industrial refrigeration systems as it can lead to broken pipes and valves and course releases of ammonia, where people are severely injured.

How do they work? 
Advantages and disadvantages of them? 
Capacity regulation how does it work and why are screw compressor capacity regulation with the capacity slide inefficient? 
What is Vi regulation and why is it important? 
Screws and VLT drives, what to be careful with?
Economizers, which types and systems are there and how do they work?
What is an economizer port and how can it be used efficiently? 

In this webinar we look at reciprocating and screw compressors. How do they work? What are the advantages and disadvantages of them? When should we use either type and for what purpose? What is Vi regulation and why is it so important? Why is a screw compressor so inefficient at part load? What is the relation between slide position and real capacity on screw compressors? How does economizer work and how can the economizer port be used more efficiently with sideload and what to be careful with? How do you use reciprocation and screw compressors most efficient?